Pitch is the term for movement of the car body around a horizontal, transverse axis.

Under braking a car will pitch forward (above) compressing the front springs. This is also known as dive.

Under acceleration the car will pitch rearwards, compressing the rear springs. This is also known as squat.

Compare roll and yaw.


Powertrain is system which generates and transmits power.

In most cars the powertrain includes:

  • engine
  • clutch
  • gearbox
  • final drive
  • differential
  • driveshafts
  • wheels & tyres

The powertrain may also include:

  • torque converter (if an automatic transmission is fitted)
  • propellor shaft (for rear-drive or four-wheel drive vehicles)
  • transfer box (for four-wheel drive vehicles, as shown above)

Powertrain is sometimes taken to mean the engine/gearbox assembly only.

See also: drivetrain